Michael's Dispatches

Gobar Gas II



Good for Business

Biogas brings national-level benefits to countries such as Nepal, helping to spur business, and has created employment for about 9,000 Nepalese. These include jobs for local masons, who are trained as biogas technicians.  Another benefit for rural development professionals: biogas programs create a new, sustainable profession even in depressed rural areas.

Today, the challenges for Mr. Rai revolve around nurturing a holistic business sector by simultaneously prodding supply—including the development of biogas appliances—and demand.  BSP-Nepal, with 30 employees, has a presence in 75 districts.  Challenges remain, especially in remote areas, but the program is growing steadily.

Incredible Return on Investment

For a typical Nepalese family, installing a biogas facility, even with subsidies, is expensive.  But people feel that the investment pays for itself quickly.  Some women reported that Gobar Gas installations completely returned the investment within a year to 18 months.  SNV figures are more conservative, but even they show a complete return on investment after about three years.

These rapid returns measure the financial cost against real financial gain, from new activities that are more likely to generate income, which take the place of the daily search for fuel to survive.  For instance, in Nepal, Subarna Budhathoki said her Gobar Gas unit cost 35,000 Nepalese rupees after the subsidy, but she made 50,000 rupees the first year by selling vegetables.  Subarna said, with a smile that hardly ended during the entire lengthy conversation, that she would have earned 200,000 rupees on tomatoes that year, but the tomatoes were victims of a hail storm.  So she cleared a real profit of 15,000 rupees in the first year.

Long Term Gains

But it’s important to consider the less easily monetized but still very real benefits of using Gobar Gas.  Saving 2,500 kilograms of trees each year per family has long-term economic value to farmers as the soil is revived. Improved health from better sanitation and the absence of constant wood smoke in the home has clear economic benefits, as does the ability to send children, freed from the labor of searching for fuel, to school.  These gains and many others don’t fit on a balance sheet.  But they are the conditions for real, long-term economic and social development in the Third World.

Donmarkai village near Vientiane, Laos.  There is more land than people here, so wood is free and free-ranging cattle make it more work to collect Gobar.

Growing rice earns money in Nepal, while wood collection costs time and often money.

The SNV program in Cambodia is doing well.  The economics favor success in Cambodia more than for Laos.  In Cambodia, for instance, wood can be difficult or expensive to acquire.  Cambodians I talked with who had SNV-installed biodigesters were very happy.  In Laos, however, the relatively small population and large number of trees makes people less excited about biogas and so the program is off to a slow start, though this is the perfect time, before the trees are gone.

Households of four to five people require about two cows or buffalos to create enough raw materials.  A thousand chickens or a hundred small humans can match one big water buffalo, and four pigs equal about two cows in dung production. Connecting the family outhouse gives a slight Gobar boost, but is more useful for sanitation than fuel.

(SNV has plenty of detailed analysis country-by-country for the MBAs, scientists and farmers to analyze.)

Mrs. Am Phaly.

Mrs. Am Phaly, at Koh Prak village in Cambodia, saves about one hour a day on cooking.  After the $150 subsidy, she paid $250 for the installation of her unit, and saves $150 per year on charcoal and electricity.  In the time saved, Mrs. Phaly runs another business: a plant nursery.  She also buys 2.5 tons of rice per month and sells it all.  (She had a least a ton of rice in this room.)  The blue pipe in the background is the gas.  Mrs. Phaly was not sure who the President of the United States is, but said she feels lucky to be Khmer.  All three of her kids go to school.  A neighbor came over and laughed, saying that dung had become gold at this house.  But Mrs. Phaly will not handle the animal waste that goes into the digester.  She has her husband run the plant.


In Nepal, cow dung has both religious and societal sanctity, and its virtues are praised in songs.  They handle Gobar as we would handle apples.  Interestingly, Gobar doesn’t stink in Nepal.  Some Nepalese have had the experience of traveling in the United States, and becoming nauseous when passing by a cow pastures.  Feed for American cows makes the Gobar stink terribly for Nepalese. In Nepal, I’ve seen women clean floors with fresh, wet buffalo dung, which they later dry and cook with, or increasingly some feed into the digester.

Mr. Christophe Barron, the Head of China Program for Initiative Development, installs biogas in China.  Mr. Barron recounted seeing numerous biogas program failures in Africa, largely due to taboos, though Mr. Barron said there is little problem in China.  The implications for Afghanistan are unknown, though some Afghans definitely handle dung.

The Chinese will connect outhouses to digesters without a second thought, but many Nepalese refuse to connect outhouses.  In Nepal, social obstacles are steadily being overcome by smart program design and time; to qualify for subsidy, the buyer hires one of the BSP-Nepal accredited companies.  The blueprint requires that a pipe be installed, for a future connection to the outhouse.  The owner can choose to connect or not.  In the early days, according to Mr. Rai, very few people connected outhouses, but today two thirds of Nepalese households eventually make the connection.  Less than 1% of the families in Laos have connected outhouses to the digesters.

Larger Projects

Toilets connected to Gobar Gas at German-supported orphanage in Kathmandu.

SNV concentrates on domestic biogas, but others will undertake larger endeavors. Sunil Krishna Shrestha is the Nepalese manager of a German-funded project.  Most home installations use a 4 or 6m3 plant, but this 30m3—at an orphanage for 40 children—is enough to run two stoves for 6-8 hours per day, saving about $130 per month in LPG costs.

Large German-led project near Kathmandu.  This 100m3 Nepalese plant is under construction.

Associated with the orphanage is a larger project where two large biogas plants are being installed along with greenhouses.  The kids learn how to use the biogas and work on the farm.  The goal is to achieve a financially self-sufficient orphanage by the year 2020.   Today they collect kitchen wastes from seven restaurants to feed the digesters, then sell organic vegetables back to the restaurants at 20% over the non-organic price.

Two installations (one each of Chinese and Nepalese design) were being connected to five homes—with a goal of connecting fifty homes.  Sewage pipes will run from the toilets to the digesters, and biogas will run back to the kitchens.  Households will pay a small monthly fee, and that fee will go back to the orphanage.

The 50m3 Chinese design is made by an established Chinese biogas company called Puxin, and Mr. Shrestha said the cost is about $19,000.  The Puxin system needs to be fed only once per six months.  The 100m3 Nepali design cost about $34,000 and will be fed by the animals, kitchen wastes and toilets on a daily basis.

Greenhouses that help pay for the orphanage.  Afghans are open to using greenhouses.

Other Afghan Factors

Afghanistan recently won the silver medal in a competition for the world’s most corrupt nation.  Somalia beat them by a nose, walking away with the gold medal, and all the gold that was meant for the people.  Adding resources to Afghanistan has only made it more corrupt by giving thieves something to steal and more power after they steal it.  Grassroots efforts can bypass many of these issues.

More than forty of the world’s most developed nations are nurturing Afghanistan, trying to push, pull and prod it into shape.  Simultaneously, it won a silver medal for corruption.  This means, at very least, that top-down solutions are typically not working.  The government cannot be trusted with development money, because they don’t care about the development part.  We might as well feed the money into bio-digesters.  Fundamental progress in Afghanistan can best be achieved with more bottom up efforts.  That’s what worked in Nepal.

There is no accurate census for Afghanistan.  This causes headaches for the U.S. military and others, because they don’t have a great understanding of who is where.  A Nepalese census found that only about 13,000 families live above 3,000m.  As a rule, 3000 meters is the limit for use of a biogas facility.  Though some companies have installed them a little further up the mountains.  There is no true technical limit for altitude, but there are practical limits.

Kathmandu Valley with visibility reduced partly due to the smoke from cooking stoves.


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  • This commment is unpublished.
    Eddy · 11 years ago
    I love your articles about this excellent technology, Michael. I recently read an article in my local newspaper about an entrepreneur here in Georgia (USA) trying to make a large-scale gobar gas plant running off cow crap from all the farms, I got so excited after learning so much about it from you.
  • This commment is unpublished.
    paul conway · 11 years ago
    Mr Yon;
    Very interesting article. Gobar gas would seem to have potential in Afghanistan unless lack of water makes it impractical. I'm a farmer so I have a different perspective on manure. I suspect that farms in Afghanistan need all the manure they can get given the low organic matter of soils in a dry climate. The easiest way to apply manure is to graze either crop residues or crops grown for grazing; the problem in Afghanistan is enough water to support both. Ideally you grow a grazing crop after harvesting a grain or other cash crop using rainfall during the "wet" season usually the winter in desert areas(snow counts as rain). Wheat and barley can be grazed when young but animals must be removed when the grain crops starts to grow rapidly. Manure can also be applied by collecting it from pens and spreading it by hand. I doubt that there is a labor shortage in rural Afghanistan.
    Soil organic matter is the single most important factor in maintaining productive erosion resitant soils. Fertilizers have a place but will not maintain soil organic matter levels by themselves. Manures and good crop rotations are vital, a fact lost to most US farmers. The PRTs could use some organic farmers who know how to build healthy soils. Besides fertilizer cost money, maunure does not. The answer to developing Afghan arigulture is not the wholesale blind adoption of modern technology but adapting methods to facts on the ground. For example, improving animal drawn implements can improve crop yields just as much as mechanization without the cost of equipment,fuel and parts. Again there is no shortage of farm labor so why bother to mechanize.
    Several NGOs have developed portable solar cookers in Africa which cook meals with no wood. This approach might be more adaptable to Afghanistan than gobar gas.
    Paul Conway
  • This commment is unpublished.
    Jerry · 11 years ago
    In your article you eluded to the difference between Afghanistan and Nepal where in Nepal there is unity between the ethnic groups, whereas in Afghanistan much less. What do you consider to be the reasons for success in the one county and failure in the other?
    Thank you so much for your writings and photos. You help me understand so much better the complexities of the conflicts.
  • This commment is unpublished.
    Gregg · 11 years ago
    I love your articles, however, it’s obvious that you are just spinning your wheels. With all of the time you spent in Iraq reporting the truth about the war it pains me to see the military deliberately sidelining you when they could using you to win the hearts and minds of the people here at home.
    Every time I see a report on the evening news with an ”In Depth Report From Afghanistan” it is quite obvious to read between the lines and watch those in-experienced “war journalist” scared witless when a shot is heard in the distance and far out of range. Their focus on the report is so scripted it sounds like it was written by a PsyOps officer and censored extensively.
    The quality of those reports is completely lacking and always reminds me of the Russian propaganda machine when the Russians occupied Afghanistan.
    All I see from the reporters today is a whitewash of the reality of the war and the Big Brass patting themselves on the back for the failures they claim as victories.
    When you were there reporting we could trust that we were really getting the truth. Now, every word out of Gen McCrystal’s mouth sounds just like the bumbling Russian Generals all over again.
    We no longer get to see and hear about our sons and daughters and the sons and daughters of Great Britain and other countries. Even though a report may have been of someone else’s son or daughter those reports from you were our lifeline to them.
    It’s quite obvious that your boot from the war zone is retribution for exposing the failures and to cover up their continued failure in handling the war. Frankly, I believe that McCrystal and his whole command needs to be fired for lying to the American people.
    McCrystal is a joke in the eyes of many people here at home. I don’t care how many people speak up for him. He’s still a joke to me.
  • This commment is unpublished.
    Justin Smith · 11 years ago
    Michael -

    Excellent articles. My wife and I got turned on to an orphanage in Cambodia that saves kids from a life in the Steung Meanchey dump, among other things. A buddy of ours took some incredible pictures there, his style reminds me somewhat of yours... check www.anthonysloan.com if you have a chance. That said, it would seem to make sense to get in good with these orphanages... they are taking these incredibly disadvantaged kids and turning them into savy little business people. This one in particular, Cambodian Childrens Fund www.cambodianchildrensfund.org seems to do good work (and no, I'm not affiliated with it in any way). It might make sense for some of these Gobar Gas folks were to install gas facilities at the orphanages. The kids grow up understanding the benefits of the technology without having the cultural baggage that may otherwise be attached. Of course, I'm not sure if they have enough little kids or chickens to run the thing... :-) I'll forward your articles to them... if it makes sense for them I'd sure kick in a few $$$.
  • This commment is unpublished.
    Scott Klimczak · 11 years ago

    I was completely engrossed. I would expect to see full-issue articles of this caliber in NatGeo or The Economist. Have you submitted? Looking at the relatively low cost for residential installation, I almost want to give directly to subsidize these myself. Is there a charitable fund (with high flow-through percentage) dedicated to helping this international effort? All the money we pay in taxes and fees, yet a direct contribution would have such a longer-lasting and immediate impact.

    Fantastic work. Thanks for the full-dispatch 'fix'. Looking forward to more.
  • This commment is unpublished.
    Yeo Jia Tian · 11 years ago
    Great job on this find. I stumbled across Gobar gas two years ago for my public policy course when searching for ways to reduce CO2 output while improving agricultural output (a next to impossible assignment given to me by my lecturers). It was the near-perfect solution with few drawbacks, great for farmers and also for appeasing the greens. My lecturers, alas, did not quite appreciate a technical solution, and were looking more for a political strategy to solve the problem.

    As a political animal, Obama is likely the same. In addition, he is either too stupid or too traitorous to even consider this approach as part of a nation-building initiative.

    PS. I'm not even an american!
  • This commment is unpublished.
    Stephan Fassmann · 11 years ago
    This would dovetail nicely with permaculture, a gardening-lifestyle schema that makes incredible use of rainwater and mulch and native perennial plants. Permaculture is also a bottom-up type thing, which is never sexy so it never gets talked about.
    If these two ideas made love I am pretty sure that we can solve the base problems of the world.
  • This commment is unpublished.
    Brian in Australia · 11 years ago
    Great article mate! As one of the co-respondents mentioned above, the use of animal dung may be limited but depending on social standards, human waste may be substituted. Whatever the case, this is such a great idea to adopt! The Ghurkas and Afghans have a natural affinity for one another and I would encourage the parties that be to adopt this as a urgent development approach.................utilise the Ghurkas as an acceptable means fo getting this started with the local population in Helmand province at least.
  • This commment is unpublished.
    Scott Dudley · 11 years ago
    Did you ever have a chance to utilize those skills? Would seem useful to backtrack from a buried IED.
  • This commment is unpublished.
    Bob · 11 years ago
    I believe by having some of the Nepalese representatives and the Gurkha soldiers leading this idea for a Gobar Gas system would be brilliant. Since both the Nepalese/Gurkha and the Afghans share so many similarities...what better way to bring in modernization to the Afghan people than by having a representative force/group that can teach them and mentor them in producing biogas collection systems. Not only would it help the economy and the Afghan population but it would also deplete the very frustrations of lack of electricity, gas/fuel, work, and oppotunities that the Taliban and insurgent groups have been feeding off of.

    If the Coalition and the governments that are part of it are truly seeking a way to get of Afghanistan and help in its reconstruction and build up...than using the simplest methods is probably the easiest and in the long run the best. Provide the Afghans with renewable resources and as seen by the example of how Gobar Gas allowed kids to attend schools will help develop a generation of educated people who can lead their country to better things. Deprive the Taliban their greatest resources: frustrated civilians (due to shady government and police forces), lack of jobs (gives the farmers and villages if they use this Biogas system more time to grow crops or learn trades), lack of money (sell your part of the biogas to others or vice versa teach and build systems for others), lack of security (by building a stable economy and a renewable resource for energy and such a village or city like Kabul can train better soldiers and police officers who will be paid decently).

    There is so much potential from this idea. Please Michael if you can gather a group of Nepalese businessmen, soldiers, mentors and so forth and do a test program in a village where you can see if indeed setting up a biogas system for the villagers for each house would do the trick in modernizing and helping the Afghan people in the long run!

    Plus, if there is a donation system I would love to know about this too. A microfinancing system would work great or even simply a charitable donation would do the trick.
  • This commment is unpublished.
    Karl Krahmer · 11 years ago
    Hello Michael,
    Another fantastic and informative dispatch. Thanks. I have 2 questions about the viability of gobar gas in Afghanistan:
    1- is there enough water in most areas to make it feasible? Areas like the "green zone" seem like they would, but much of the rest of the country seems like it would not. But perhaps their wells would be able to sustain the units.
    2- I read recently (I think it was from a link from your site regarding the "new" mineral deposits in country) that Afghanistan has a pathetic, almost non-existent, concrete industry. Something like less than 2 kg/person per year. Due to that scarcity of concrete, are there other materials that could be used to make the units? Or are there plans to ramp up concrete capacity (outside of the mining industries)?

    Keep up the great work!
  • This commment is unpublished.
    Marius · 11 years ago
    hello Michael.
    It's nice to get more info about Gobar gas. As you said during your visit in Ghor in 2009, these people might use Gobar gas if they know how to do this. let's hope that one day they will discover what kind of benefits Gobar gas might give them
    good luck in your future dispatches!
  • This commment is unpublished.
    Daniel Welborn · 11 years ago
    Thanks for this informative article, really good stuff. Now I feel guilty about a comment I put on the Bangkok dispatch trying to give constructive criticism. This post about Gobar Gas is what I consider "classic Yon", an excellent in-depth coverage of a topic, with great photos, such that from my chair in Florida, I feel like I just took a pleasant trip and met interesting people and got an intimate knowledge of a specific thing. Previous dispatches in Afghanistan about the artillery units, the Pedros (did I remember that right? I mean the medivac helicopters), or accompanying Brits as they patrol on foot, are similar examples of what I'll call "classic Yon". Anyways, enough scrutiny of your style and content. Great article, and great idea (that Gobar Gas could be good for Afghanistan). Thanks.
  • This commment is unpublished.
    David · 11 years ago
    "Manure Digester" that will produce 750kW of electrical being installed.

  • This commment is unpublished.
    Lewis in Orlando · 11 years ago
    Note: Mr. Welborn - you had it right, Mr. Yon wrote an excellent article on the Pedros in Helmand Province. Those guys are still there and the Pedros actually suffered many casualties very recently when their bird was shot down. Let's all pray that there are no more casualties.

    Regarding this article:
    As a Master's student at UF's Ecological Engineering program, it's really great to hear about ecological engineering from a predominantly war-focused correspondent in an article that describes the benefits of the technology. In order to solve the energy, economic, and social problems of the world, we have to look to old-fashioned technologies that maximize the efficiency of natural processes (processes such as decomposition, described here). Nature provides all that we need, we just need to figure out how to use it efficiently and not wastefully. Your description of the villagers having to travel for more than 4 hours to find enough wood to cook is akin to the fall of the Roman empire due to deforestation and the near extinction of Easter Island residents due to the same reason. These modern-day villagers will continue to have to travel farther and farther to find wood, until it is completely unsustainable. An unsustainable lifestyle, whether it is McMansions and Hummers [already failed] in the US or wood-burning cook stoves in the deserts of Afghanistan, will eventually lead to more poverty and the social problems that come along with it (like joining the Taliban for some cash).

    Mr. Yon, you have an excellent view of the world and I hope that more people will realize that it will take just as much social investment in MEANINGFUL programs as it takes in military investment to defeat the Taliban.

    How about some comments on the "recent discovery" in Afghanistan of a trillion dollar's worth of gold, silver, copper, iron, and lithium? My first thought was, "yeah right, this was known all along because the Soviets knew about it in the 70's and 80's." And it all made sense to me, Afghanistan doesn't have oil, but heck, they have natural resources that might end up being just as good if not better, especially if lithium for batteries turns out to be a "gold mine" for modern technology.
  • This commment is unpublished.
    Janet · 11 years ago
    Hi Michael,

    This is fascinating. I am going to Tanzania on Saturday to work on a development project and I will be thinking of this work while there. Can you tell me how I can get my hands on the book recommended above, please?

    In addition, I am working on an anerobic digestion project currently so I am very excited at the prospects of this.

    Thank you for this enlightening article.

  • This commment is unpublished.
    Ed Mears · 11 years ago
    Great work for our troops! We are working closely with Ministry of Energy and Water to build and design biogas systems for communities and Afghan facilities. We can, we will! Best, Ed Mears, Major, US Forces-Afghanistan.
  • This commment is unpublished.
    Bishal prasad · 9 years ago
  • This commment is unpublished.
    Frank · 8 years ago
    Hello here is a great article
  • This commment is unpublished.
    Frank · 8 years ago
    look at this
  • This commment is unpublished.
    hemen parekh · 7 years ago

    The biggest cause for the degradation of environment is burning of fossil fuels

    Burning of coal / gas / oil etc produces green-house gases , leading to global warming / floods / droughts etc

    Everyone knows that the real long term solution is switching over to renewable energy sources such as wind / sun / tides etc

    Can we tap earth's magnetism to produce abundant / unlimited / clean energy ?

    I believe so and would request the scientists to consider my following suggestion :

    Every school child knows that ,

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    > Earth is surrounded by a very strong magnetic

    > This magnetic field is generated by the rotation
    of molten iron deep inside earth's core

    > This magnetic field also protects us from

    harmful ultra-violet rays / gamma radiations

    from space

    Now , suppose we find a way to ,

    > Construct a hollow cylinder of woven Copper

    wires to envelope the earth , 100 miles above

    the earth's surface ( like those thin rings of

    Saturn ? )

    > Then , using small rocket thrusts , rotate this

    cylinder in the direction opposite of earth's

    rotation , to cut through its magnetic field

    Will that generate electricity ?

    I think so

    With international co-operation such a project would take less time - and possibly money too - than the already successful international projects of the International Space Station or the Large Hadron Collider of CERN

    It may be exciting to discover the God Particle and understand what makes up mass but I think , it is far more useful to find a permanent / clean source of energy to prevent the extinction of all life on earth by burning fossil fuels

    * hemen parekh ( 25 March 2014 / Mumbai )
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